The mechanical collapse of sinkhole at the Dead Sea is triggered by cavities created by the dissolution of an underlying salt layer by relatively fresh groundwater. The processes attributed to the mechanical formation of the sinkholes are viscous flow and brittle fracture failure. The inter-play between the dispersive viscous-flow behavior and localized damage behavior causes interesting results that do not exist when each process acts separately.
Shalev, E., and Lyakhovsky, V., Viscoelastic damage modeling of sinkholes formation, J. Struct. Geol. 42, 163-170, 2012
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Simulated damage growth that leads to surface collapse.